As discussed previously, new processes in steel refining, along with inventions in the fields of communications and electricity, transformed the business landscape of the nineteenth century.
The exploitation of these new technologies provided opportunities for tremendous growth, and business entrepreneurs with financial backing and the right mix of business acumen and ambition could make their fortunes. Some of these new millionaires were known in their day as robber baronsa negative term that connoted the belief that they exploited workers and bent laws to succeed.Jaso oil list
Regardless of how they were perceived, these businessmen and the companies they created revolutionized American industry. Earlier in the nineteenth century, the first transcontinental railroad and subsequent spur lines paved the way for rapid and explosive railway growth, as well as stimulated growth in the iron, wood, coal, and other related industries.
Byrailroad lines covered nearly every corner of the United States, bringing raw materials to industrial factories and finished goods to consumer markets. The amount of track grew from 35, miles at the end of the Civil War to overmiles by the close of the century. Inventions such as car couplers, air brakes, and Pullman passenger cars allowed the volume of both freight and people to increase steadily.
From toboth the amount of goods and the number of passengers traveling the rails tripled. Financing for all of this growth came through a combination of private capital and government loans and grants. Railroads also listed their stocks and bonds on the New York Stock Exchange to attract investors from both within the United States and Europe. Individual investors consolidated their power as railroads merged and companies grew in size and power.Audi a4 1.8 t wiring diagram diagram base website wiring
These individuals became some of the wealthiest Americans the country had ever known. Among their highly questionable tactics was the practice of differential shipping rates, in which larger business enterprises received discounted rates to transport their goods, as opposed to local producers and farmers whose higher rates essentially subsidized the discounts.Angular 6 sort by date
His work with the Erie Railroad was notorious among other investors, as he drove the company to near ruin in a failed attempt to attract foreign investors during a takeover attempt.
His model worked better in the American West, where the railroads were still widely scattered across the country, forcing farmers and businesses to pay whatever prices Gould demanded in order to use his trains. In addition to owning the Union Pacific Railroad that helped to construct the original transcontinental railroad line, Gould came to control over ten thousand miles of track across the United States, accounting for 15 percent of all railroad transportation.
Vanderbilt consolidated several smaller railroad lines, called trunk lines, to create the powerful New York Central Railroad Company, one of the largest corporations in the United States at the time Figure He later purchased stock in the major rail lines that would connect his company to Chicago, thus expanding his reach and power while simultaneously creating a railroad network to connect Chicago to New York City.
This consolidation provided more efficient connections from Midwestern suppliers to eastern markets.
It was through such consolidation that, byseven major railroad tycoons controlled over 70 percent of all operating lines. The post-Civil War inventors generated ideas that transformed the economy, but they were not big businessmen.
The evolution from technical innovation to massive industry took place at the hands of the entrepreneurs whose business gambles paid off, making them some of the richest Americans of their day.
Us History Chapter 18 Section 4
Steel magnate Andrew Carnegie, oil tycoon John D. Rockefeller, and business financier J.Ihip sound pods wireless earbuds only one working
Morgan were all businessmen who grew their respective businesses to a scale and scope that were unprecedented. Their companies changed how Americans lived and worked, and they themselves greatly influenced the growth of the country.
Andrew Carnegie, steel magnate, has the prototypical rags-to-riches story. Although such stories resembled more myth than reality, they served to encourage many Americans to seek similar paths to fame and fortune. In Carnegie, the story was one of few derived from fact. Born in Scotland, Carnegie immigrated with his family to Pennsylvania in As a messenger, he spent much of his time around the Pennsylvania Railroad office and developed parallel interests in railroads, bridge building, and, eventually, the steel industry.
Having seen firsthand during the Civil War, when he served as Superintendent of Military Railways and telegraph coordinator for the Union forces, the importance of industry, particularly steel, to the future growth of the country, Carnegie was convinced of his strategy. His first company was the J. Although not a scientific expert in steel, Carnegie was an excellent promoter and salesman, able to locate financial backing for his enterprise.Inventors in the late nineteenth century flooded the market with new technological advances.
These inventions were a key piece of the massive shift towards industrialization that followed. For both families and businesses, these inventions eventually represented a fundamental change in their way of life. Although the technology spread slowly, it did spread across the country. Whether it was a company that could now produce ten times more products with new factories, or a household that could communicate with distant relations, the old way of doing things was disappearing.
Communication technologies, electric power production, and steel production were perhaps the three most significant developments of the time. While the first two affected both personal lives and business development, the latter influenced business growth first and foremost, as the ability to produce large steel elements efficiently and cost-effectively led to permanently changes in the direction of industrial growth.
As the three tycoons profiled in this section illustrate, the end of the nineteenth century was a period in history that offered tremendous financial rewards to those who had the right combination of skill, ambition, and luck. Steel production, in particular, but also oil refining techniques and countless other inventions, changed how industries in the country could operate, allowing them to grow in scale and scope like never before. It is also critical to note how these different men managed their businesses and ambition.
Where Carnegie felt strongly that it was the job of the wealthy to give back in their lifetime to the greater community, his fellow tycoons did not necessarily agree.
Along the way, the models of management they adopted—horizontal and vertical integration, trusts, holding companies, and investment brokerages—became commonplace in American businesses.
Very quickly, large business enterprises fell under the control of fewer and fewer individuals and trusts. After the Civil War, as more and more people crowded into urban areas and joined the ranks of wage earners, the landscape of American labor changed.
For the first time, the majority of workers were employed by others in factories and offices in the cities. Factory workers, in particular, suffered from the inequity of their positions.
Owners had no legal restrictions on exploiting employees with long hours in dehumanizing and poorly paid work. Poor working conditions, combined with few substantial options for relief, led workers to frustration and sporadic acts of protest and violence, acts that rarely, if ever, gained them any lasting, positive effects.
Workers realized that change would require organization, and thus began early labor unions that sought to win rights for all workers through political advocacy and owner engagement. Groups like the National Labor Union and Knights of Labor both opened their membership to any and all wage earners, male or female, black or white, regardless of skill.
Their approach was a departure from the craft unions of the very early nineteenth century, which were unique to their individual industries.Plot Summary. Reform Militarism and Conquest Bias and Historiography.
All Characters. All Symbols The Trilateral Commission. LitCharts Teacher Editions. Teach your students to analyze literature like LitCharts does. Detailed explanations, analysis, and citation info for every important quote on LitCharts.
The original text plus a side-by-side modern translation of every Shakespeare play. Sign Up. Already have an account? Sign in. From the creators of SparkNotes, something better.
Sign In Sign Up. Literature Poetry Lit Terms Shakescleare. Download this LitChart! Teachers and parents! Struggling with distance learning? Themes All Themes. Characters All Characters. Symbols All Symbols. Theme Wheel. Between andthe U. By the late s, a full-scale nationalist revolution was building in Indochina.
Peasants and farmers, organized by a Communist named Ho Chi Minhdemanded their rights to self-determination, citing the American Declaration of Independence and the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. To quell the revolution, the French bombed Northern Vietnamese cities. Zinn even goes so far as to say that the North Vietnamese were the more idealistic side in the war, since they stressed the rights of freedom and self-determination.
Active Themes. The Establishment. From toAmerica funded the vast majority of the French war effort, providing advice, guns, and money. Publicly, the government claimed that it was trying to prevent the spread of Communism in Asia.
By contrast, Ho Chi Minh aimed to remedy poverty among his people. It is likely that the U. Ngo Dinh Diem is a controversial figure because, after the U.These Arawaks of the Bahama Islands were much like Indians on the mainland, who were remarkable European observers were to say again and again for their hospitality, their belief in sharing. These traits did not stand out in the Europe of the Renaissance, dominated as it was by the religion of popes, the government of kings, the frenzy for money that marked western civilization and its first messenger to the Americas, Christopher Columbus.
If history is to be creative, to anticipate a possible future without denying the past, it should, I believe, emphasize new possibilities by disclosing those hidden episodes of the past when, even if in brief flashes, people showed their ability to resist, to join together, occasionally to win.
I am supposing, or perhaps only hoping, that our future may be found in the past's fugitive moments of compassion rather than in its solid centuries of warfare. That, being as blunt as I can, is my approach to the history of the United States.
The reader may as well know that before going on. Two sophisticated ways of controlling direct labor action developed in the mid-thirties. First, the National Labor Relations Board would give unions legal status, listen to them, settling certain of their grievances.
Thus it could moderate labor rebellion by channeling energy into elections—just as the constitutional system channeled possibly troublesome energy into voting. The NLRB would set limits in economic conflict as voting did in political conflict.
And second, the workers' organization itself, the union, even a militant and aggressive union like the CIO, would channel the workers' insurrectionary energy into contracts, negotiations, union meetings, and try to minimize strikes, in order to build large, influential, even respectable organizations.
Only one fear was greater than the fear of black rebellion in the new American colonies.Ch 18 Give Me Liberty! The Progressive Era 1900 1916
That was the fear that discontented whites would join black slaves to overthrow the existing order. In the early years of slavery, especially, before racism as a way of thinking was firmly ingrained, while white indentured servants were often treated as badly as black slaves, there was a possibility of cooperation. The point of noting those outside the arc of human rights in the Declaration is not, centuries late and pointlessly, to lay impossible moral burdens on that time.
It is to try to understand the way in which the Declaration functioned to mobilize certain groups of Americans, ignoring others. Surely, inspirational language to create a secure consensus is still used, in our time, to cover up serious conflicts of interest in that consensus, and to cover up, also, the omission of large parts of the human race.
Under congressional policy approved by Lincoln, the property confiscated during the war under the Confiscation Act of July would revert to the heirs of the Confederate owners. As the first act of the new North-South capitalist cooperation, the Southern Homestead Act, which had reserved all federal lands—one-third of the area of Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Louisiana, Mississippi—for farmers who would work the land, was repealed. This enabled absentee speculators and lumbermen to move in and buy up much of this land.G star iv gps software download
And so the deal was made. The proper committee was set up by both houses of Congress to decide where the electoral votes would go.Find the corresponding video lessons with this companion course chapter. Watch fun videos that cover the Manifest Destiny and westward expansion topics you need to learn or review. Complete the quizzes to test your understanding.
If you need additional help, rewatch the videos until you've mastered the material or submit a question for one of our instructors. Chapter Topics You'll learn all of the history topics covered in the textbook chapter, including:. In this lesson, we'll discuss Jackson's forced removal of Native Americans from their land in the east to new territory west of the Mississippi River. When George Washington left office, he warned against getting drawn into global issues, yet just over years later, the U.
What started this rise of American Imperialism? Did you know… We have over college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is accepted by over 1, colleges and universities.
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